Jakarta is the capital city of the Republic of Indonesia, a country composed of more than 13,000 islands with a population of over 200 million. Comprising more than 300 ethnic groups speaking 200 different languages, the Indonesia population exhibits marked diversity in its linguistic, culture, and religious traditions. As the Capital City, Jakarta is a melting pot of representatives from each of these ethnic groups and truly a "meeting point" of representatives from through out the archipelago..Jakarta is a special territory enjoying the status of a province, consisting of Greater Jakarta, covering of 637.44 square km area. Located on the northern coast of West Java, it is the center of government, commerce and industry and has an extensive communications network with the rest of the country and the outside world. Strategically positioned in the archipelago, the city is also the principal gateway to the rest of Indonesia. From the Capital City, sophisticated land, air, and sea transport is available to the rest of the country and beyond. Over the last several decades, Jakarta has proudly developed into one of Asia's most prominent metropolitan centers. With a current population of over nine million people, Jakarta has undergone dramatic growth especially over the last few years. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. It also has a greater population than any other city in Southeast Asia. It was formerly known as Sunda Kelapa (397–1527), Jayakarta (1527–1619), Batavia (1619–1942), and Djakarta (1942–1972). Located on the northwest coast of Java, it has an area of 661.52 square kilometres (255.41 sq mi) and a population of 8,489,910. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political center. Jakarta is the twelfth-largest city in the world; the metropolitan area, called Jabodetabek, is the sixth-largest in the world.
Major landmarks in Jakarta include Indonesia Stock Exchange, the Bank of Indonesia, and the National Monument (Tugu Monas). The city is the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat. Jakarta is served by the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport, and Tanjung Priok harbour; it is connected by several intercity and commuter railways, and served by several bus lines running on reserved busways.
The economy depends heavily on financial service, trading, and manufacturing. Financial service constituted 23% of Jakarta's GDP in 1989. The manufacturing industry is well-diversified with significant electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences manufacturing sectors. Jakarta is the most luxurious and busiest city in Indonesia. In 2009, 13% of the population had an income per capita in excess of US$ 10,000 (Rp 108,000,000).
Officially, Jakarta is not a city, but rather a province with special status as the capital of Indonesia. It is administered much like any other Indonesian province. For example: Jakarta has a governor (instead of a mayor), and is divided into several sub-regions with their own administrative systems. Jakarta, as a province, is divided into five cities (kota), formerly municipalities, each headed by a mayor, and one regency (kabupaten) headed by a regent. In August 2007, Jakarta held its first ever election to pick a governor; the election was won by Fauzi Bowo. The city's governors have previously been appointed by local parliament. The poll is part of a country-wide decentralization drive, allowing for direct local elections in several areas. This Year on July, the city's will held election to pick a governor.
List of cities of Jakarta:
- Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat: Pop. 898.883) is the most densely populated district and home to most of the city's skyscrapers. The district is the central government office, Bank Indonesia, the big mosque of Istiqlal, the big shopping center of Grand Indonesia and numerous museums.
- East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur: Pop. 2,687,027)
- North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara: Pop. 1,645,312)
- South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan: Pop. 2,057,080)
- West Jakarta (Jakarta Barat: Pop. 2,278,825)
The only regency of Jakarta is: Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu: Pop. 21,071), formerly a subdistrict of North Jakarta.
As the economic and political capital of Indonesia, Jakarta attracts many foreign as well as domestic immigrants. Many of the immigrants are from the other parts of the island of Java, bringing along a mixture of dialects of the Javanese and Sundanese languages, as well as their traditional foods and customs.
To see for themselves what and now those Betawi art forms are, we can go to any travel agent and ask for tour to a " Betawi Cultural Institution "to catch a glimpse of the real thing". Or we can visit the Jakarta pavilion at Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Beautiful Indonesia in Miniature Park) which has long been showing Betawi ceremonies such as the Betawi wedding ceremony, the circumcision procession, the baby head – shaving ceremony etc. As mentioned before, the Betawi group emerged in the 19th century from the melting pot of races, ethnic groups and cultures. Today the Betawi culture has a distinct personality of its own, but one can discern the various influences of other cultures by looking or listening to its art form.
The Tanjidor orchestra is certainly inherited from Dutch land – owners and the Gambang Kromong and Cokek dance originated in the residence of wealthy Chinese traders and merchants. The Betawi Cokek dance shows Balinese influence in the movement of the dancers and the style of playing the gamelan. This style of playing the gamelan can also be observed in the gamelan orchestra accompanying the Wayang Kulit Betawi show. The Portuguese speaking community has also left its inheritance, the Kroncong Tugu with its popular songs Nina Bobo, Kaparinyo and Kroncong moritsko is said to be the origin of the popular Kroncong orchestra of to day.
The Javanese presence since the 17th century has left its mark too on the Betawi music, dance and theatre; Wayang Kulit Betawi and Lenong are examples of this influence. A major influence on the Betawi culture is Islam, the religion of the majority of the people. The Rebana orchestra, the Gambus orchestra, the Zapin dance are Islam inspired art forms. The Betawi traditional art is developed and accepted well. Not only Betawi people, but also other ethnic groups are fond of this art. For example, the traditional drama – Lenong and Topeng Blantik (Blantik mask), the traditional dance – Tari Topeng (Mask Dance), Ondel-ondel, Ronggeng Topeng, etc, the traditional art of music – Sambrah, Rebana, Gambang Kromong, Tanjidor, Puppet – Betawi puppet using the Malay-Betawi dialect
Jakarta has several performing art centers, such as the Taman Ismail Marzuki (TIM) art center in Cikini, Gedung Kesenian Jakarta near Pasar Baru, Balai Sarbini in Mall Semanggi area, Art Market in Ancol, and traditional Indonesian art performances at provinces pavilions in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah. Traditional music is often found at high-class hotels, including wayang and gamelan performances. Javanese Wayang Orang performance can be found at Wayang Orang Bharata building near Senen bus terminal. As the nation's largest city and capital, Jakarta has lured much national and regional talent who hope to find a greater audience and more opportunities for success.
Despite the presence of many wide roads, Jakarta suffers from congestion due to heavy traffic, especially in the central business district. To reduce traffic jams, some major roads in Jakarta have a 'three in one' rule during rush hours, first introduced in 1992, prohibiting fewer than three passengers per car on certain roads.
The TransJakarta bus rapid transit service operates on seven reserved busway corridors in the city; connected seven main points of Jakarta, such as Blok M, Jakarta Kota, Pulo Gadung, Kali Deres, Lebak Bulus, Ragunan, and Kampung Rambutan. The first TransJakarta line, from Blok M to Jakarta Kota opened in January 2004.
An outer ring road is now being constructed and is partly operational from Cilincing-Cakung-Pasar Rebo-Pondok Pinang-Daan Mogot-Cengkareng. A toll road connects Jakarta to Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in the northwest of Jakarta. Connected via toll road is the port of Merak and Tangerang to the west, connected Bogor, Puncak to the south, and connected Bekasi, Cikarang, Karawang, Cikampek, Purwakarta, and Bandung to the east.
Numerous railways serve Jakarta, connecting the city to its neighboring regions: Depok and Bogor to the south, Tangerang and Serpong to the west, and Bekasi, Karawang, and Cikampek to the east. The major rail stations are Gambir, Jakarta Kota, Jatinegara, Pasar Senen, Manggarai, and Tanah Abang. During peak hours, the number of passengers greatly exceeds the system's capacity, and crowding is common.
Two lines of the Jakarta Monorail are under construction: the green line serving Semanggi-Casablanca Road-Kuningan-Semanggi and the blue line serving Kampung Melayu-Casablanca Road-Tanah Abang-Roxy. In addition, there are plans for a two-line metro (MRT) system, with a north-south line between Kota and Lebak Bulus, with connections to both monorail lines; and an east-west line, which will connect with the north-south line at the Sawah Besar station. The current project, which began in 2005, has been delayed due to a lack of funds, and the project has been abandoned by the developer PT Jakarta Monorail in March 2008. The government is now looking for new investors.
On 30 November 2007, KRL (Commuter Train) Ciliwung Blue Line began operation. It serves Jakarta's circle line, which was used in the 80s. The fare price is Rp 3500. It serves Manggarai, Sudirman, Karet, Tanah Abang, Duri, Angke, Kampung Bandan, Rajawali, Kemayoran, Pasar Senen, Gang Sentiong, Kramat, Pondok Jati, and Jatinegara. The train can carry 400 passengers. On 6 June 2007, the city administration started to introduce the Waterway, a new river boat service along the Ciliwung River.
Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK) is Jakarta's major airport and Indonesia's primary international gateway. It is used by both private and commercial carriers connecting Jakarta with other Indonesian cities and international destinations, and is Indonesia's busiest airport. Soekarno-Hatta serving of passengers with three terminals. A second airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport (HLP) serves mostly private and presidential flights.
Jakarta has a hot and humid tropical monsoon climate (Aw) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Despite being located relatively close to the equator, the city has distinct wet and dry seasons. Wet seasons in Jakarta cover the majority of the year, running from November through June. The remaining four months forms the city's dry season. Located in the western-part of Indonesia, Jakarta's wet season rainfall peak is January with average monthly rainfall of 389 millimetres (15.3 in), and its dry season low point is September with a monthly average of 30 millimetres (1.2 in).
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